Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when there is an injury to the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury usually refers to TBI, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull.


Types of Injury:

These mechanisms are the most common causes of brain injury:

  • Open Head Injury: largely focal damage from bullet wounds, penetration of the skull, etc. Effects can be just as serious as closed brain injury.
  • Closed Head Injury: focal damage and diffuse damage to axons. The effects tend to be broad and can result from a slip and fall, motor vehicle crashes, etc. no penetration to the skull. Deceleration
  • Deceleration Injury: (Diffuse Axonal Injury) Different parts of the brain move at different speeds because of their relative lightness or heaviness. When the brain is slammed back and forth inside the skull it is alternately compressed and stretched because of the gelatinous consistency. The long, fragile axons of the neurons (single nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord) are also compressed and stretched. This is called axonal shearing. When this happens, the neuron dies. After a severe brain injury, there is massive axonal shearing, neuron death, and brain swelling.  
  • Chemical/Toxic: also known as metabolic disorders. They occur when harmful chemicals damage the neurons. Chemicals and toxins can include insecticides, solvents, carbon monoxide poisoning, lead poisoning, etc.
  • Hypoxia and Anoxia: If the blood flow is depleted of oxygen, then irreversible brain injury can occur from anoxia or hypoxia. Anoxia is when there is no oxygen and hypoxia is when there is reduced oxygen. It may take only a few minutes for either of these to occur. They may be caused by heart attacks, respiratory failure, near drowning, neck injury, drops in blood pressure and a low oxygen environment. This type of brain injury can result in severe cognitive and memory deficits.
  • Tumors: Tumors can cause brain injury by invading the spaces of the brain and causing direct damage. They can also cause damage as a result of pressure effects around an enlarged tumor. Surgical procedures to remove the tumor may also contribute to brain injury
  • Infections: When the blood-brain protective system is breached, the brain and surrounding membranes are very prone to infections. Viruses and bacteria can cause serious and life- threatening diseases of the brain, encephalitis, and meninges, meningitis.
  • Stroke: If blood flow is blocked through a cerebral vascular accident (stroke), it will result in cell death in the area deprived of blood. If there is bleeding in or over the brain (hemorrhage or hematoma) because of a tear in an artery or vein, loss of blood flow and injury to the brain tissue by the blood will also result in brain damage.


What Can Keep Moving Forward Do for People with TBI?


Keep Moving Forward understands that the long-term symptoms of TBI can be divided into several categories, including physical changes, cognitive effects, sensory effects, perceptual effects, social/emotional changes and others. A primary goal is to overcome or minimize any debilitating physical conditions. Our physical therapists specialize in the examination and treatment of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular problems that affect the patient’s ability to move and function in daily life.


As part of ourintensive physical therapy program process, our physical therapist will assess:

  • Balance
  • Strength
  • Range of motion
  • Adaptive equipment and orthotics
  • Quality of movement
  • Spontaneous movement
  • Coordination of movement
  • Sensation
  • Pain
  • Functional skills


Our physical therapists will design a therapy program to maximize the physical functioning of the patient. There has been great technological advances in recent years, allowing patients with disabilities to achieve a greater degree of independence than ever before.



Intensive Physical Therapy at Keep Moving Forward, Inc.


Intensive physical therapy at Keep Moving Forward Inc. can minimize motor delays and improve balance and coordination faster than traditional physical therapy. This is due to the increased duration and repetition of tasks, helping with brain muscle reinforcement. We are also able to isolate muscles needed to initiate a movement or task. Our advance state-of-the-art equipment allows patients to maintain positions, which allow a greater level of security in order for them to figure out how to achieve the movement independently. This stability and security promotes increased independence, faster growth in strength, and muscle memory. Our Universal Exercise Unit promotes weight assisted support which allows for sensory integration and motor coordination as well as ability to achieve higher level and multi-joint tasks such as jumping. The Therasuit® allows for sensory integration and proprioceptive feedback throughout the body. This helps with the incorporation of senses through muscle movements. Our weight training activities, as well as equipment, (such as our pediatric treadmill and elliptical) help to incorporate increased strength, coordination and endurance. This integration of multiple activities helps to establish a greater balance and fluidity within an individual allowing them to perform various tasks increasing independence in all environments.

Keep Moving Forward

306 Nassau Boulevard South
Garden City , New York 11530
Phone: 516-208-2100 516-208-2100
Fax: 516-730-9660
E-mail Address:
Print Print | Sitemap
© Keep Moving Forward